I contend that fascism was a political movement unique to the early 20th century, especially in Europe, because its worldview was shaped by events and philosophical. Benito Mussolini, What is Fascism? Italy faced serious postwar economic problems which became known as "The Two Red Years". It faced inflation problems due to government printing money to pay for weapons, workers on strike, arms and shipbuilders became bankrupt due to lack of government order, and unemployment rose to two million as returning soldiers searched for work.
Benito Mussolini, upon being removed from the Socialist Party for advocating Italy 's participation in battle, organized the. On the other hand, in the period between the two world wars, many countries were falling into the hands of totalitarian dictatorships. These regimes received different names: in Russia was communism, in national-socialist Germany and Italy, fascism, and although in each place had its own characteristics, participated in numerous common aspects: head of Government was a dictator whose will was absolute, only a political party was tolerated, and although generally still existing representative.
What evidence does Zinn offer to show the US government was not opposed to fascism on principle? For example, Italy during this time was practicing fascism. If the The US was opposed to fascism the government would have tried to cut Italy off but instead it let American Businesses send oil to Italy. Zinn then explains how policies in the. Fascism, before its rise to power in , was an amorphous collection of often contradictory influences, ideologies, and backgrounds. World War I provided ties between the hyper-masculine and hyper-violent ideals of the movement.
The growth of Fascism was slow immediately after the war, but that time was when many of the institutions of Fascism were founded. After through Fascism grew even more, but contradictions remained. In this paper, Mussolini outlines his vision of the ideology, and explains the major issues that Fascism will address once it becomes the leading political system in Italy.
A national economic disaster is another part that causes fascism to develop, even further. A charismatic leader creates a major chunk of causing fascism to rise to the top of the pyramid. Fascism has a multitude of causes, if these causes happen simultaneously, then that is a formula for a fascist party to take over. Yet to lie is to abuse power. It is that simple.
Fascism has never been known for its intellectuality and, although book-burning seems a thing of the past, its equivalent is happening right now in the dissemination of lies about climate change, in flaming the scientists online, and trolling writers who cover the subject. In taking a deliberately anti-intellectual stance, these libertarians undermine the very idea of expertise, creating the thuggish intellectual atmosphere in which fascism flourishes.
Central to the Futurist manifesto was an adoration of the machine, to the point where the ultimate aim was the technological triumph of humanity over nature.
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Marinetti foresaw — and was intoxicated by — the idea of a war between organic nature and mechanised humanity. Futurists fetishised cars, planes and technology in general, loving steel and loathing wood, which came gentle from the natural earth. The flight from Earth to space: the libertarian off-ground ideology of unlimited, unrestricted freedom. Such detestation of the natural world, amounting to biophobia, is one of the hallmarks of libertarians and alt-Right alike. Environmentalists were public enemy number one. Libertarians disdain sustainability and object to environmental protection laws.
Libertarians and the alt-Right also adulate artifice.
Yiannopoulos cites the LessWrong. Trump, in his climate-change denialism, makes explicit his contempt for the natural world — mere Earth — and seeks the unbridled technological artifice of colonising space. Flight is at the heart of it. No more contact with the vile earth!
The contemptible details of my own terrestrial perspective, for example, might include lizard, pine marten and tomato; grace, ice and plurality. If only. But the alt-Right has a host of alt-facts at its fingertips. Politics has always been riddled with propaganda, spin and cover-ups, the difference is that the libertarian mindset relishes its dishonesty; part-trick, part-game, part-combat.
Common characteristics of fascist movements
Take a truth climate change, Rwandan genocide, Serbian concentration camps and simply declare it is a lie. Sit back and wait a minute, and a very gullible press with little editorial responsibility will happily help you tell the public that they have been conned. Without evidence, argument or proof. Without expertise or knowledge.
Umberto Eco Makes a List of the 14 Common Features of Fascism | Open Culture
But one libertarian lie is particularly important. In , libertarianism gave a fascist, genocidal regime its actual support. Deichmann claimed that the camps were refuges where people were protected by the Serbs. I have no words for this behaviour. On one hand, we are trying to survive what happened to us; on the other, we have these people telling us that it is a lie.
For his part, Yiannopoulos attacks Black Lives Matter activists even as he claims to disapprove of white supremacists. Those victimised by the libertarians have often been silenced: hate speech will do that to a person. There is a flavour of the decadence of the dying Roman empire in all this — the flagrant, public, abusive sexuality that Trump boasts about; the wealth of empires at his fingertips.
He was a style icon of his times.
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Politics was performance, and he compared himself to Nero as artist-tyrant. He was both self-publicist and liar: faking his death to ensure book sales. It is in the air that one feels the glory of being a man and of conquering the elements. Yiannopoulos is flamboyantly image-obsessed. They share a similar obsession with Nero — Yiannopoulos used the Twitter handle Nero until the site banned him for life for his abuse of Leslie Jones.
The Trickster wants attention but not responsibility — to create chaos and then skedaddle, like Farage after the Brexit vote. Yiannopoulos declares he is not interested in politics itself, and seems to be unable to take anything seriously. But perhaps one of the most striking resemblances is the charisma. Both in Italy and in Germany, anyone who dared to oppose the regime was punished and any political competitor was crushed, so that all the political power was kept in the hands of a single man, Benito Mussolini, in Italy and Adolf Hitler, in Germany.
Being a right wing political ideology, it is based on anti-communism and it is meant to fight against the promoting and expansion of communism in western Europe. Also, fascism is also based on the idea of anti-rationalism. Relying more on action, fascism represses human rationality and intelectual life in general. As opposed to socialism and liberalism, which considered that the world can be understood and transformed by the exercise of thought, fascism places will and violence above all virtues in the political doctrine.
Furthermore, fascism represents the expression of a political regime based on will and adressed to the soul, emotions and instincts. Another key-element of the fascist ideology is the elitism, occupying a distinct place in history by condemning the idea of equality between individuals. According to it, there is a natural selection which imposes certain individuals which are meant to be leaders and the others must obey their command. The leader not only holds unlimited constitutional powers, but also undeniable ideologic authority. For the fascist ideology, the true democracy meant absolute dictatorship, which was the fusion between absolutism and people suveranity in the form of the totalitarian democracy.
Vincent, Andrew. Modern Political Ideologies. Chichester, U. Political Ideologies: an Introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Even if the Italian fascism and the German Nazism are often seen as one and the same because of their similarities, there are also important differences that need to be noticed.
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What mainly distinguishes fascism from the German national-socialism is the matter of the race, of the Volk tradition. In Nazi Germany, history and culture were influenced by the race factor. The Nazi strongly believed that the Arian race is the most pure race that exists and it is destined to rule the world. The idea of nationalism led to extreme describes best all the forms taken by fascism across history. Nazism is the unique variety of fascism that involved biological racism and anti-Semitism.
From all of the forms in which fascism manifested , the Nazi regime was the most brutal , bloody and which contained genocide proportions. One of the main purposes of the Nazi was the complete extermination of the Jews which they blamed for all the existent problems in Germany. Definitory for the Nazi regime was not only the brutal supression, by violating the rights of the citizens, and mass extermination , but also an aggresive foreign policy, unleashing World War II, to achieve global domination for Germany.